Iceman research milestones
The following chronological list summarizes the most important results since the Iceman was discovered in 1991:
Radiologist Paul Gostner discovers that the Iceman was murdered. He was shot with an arrow
Publication: E. Egarter Vigl/ P. Gostner, Insight: Report of Radiological-Forensic Findings on the Iceman. Journal of Archaeological Science (2002) 29, 323-326
The Iceman’s last meal
Publication: Rollo, F.U. et al., Ötzi’s last meals: DNA analysis of the intestinal content of the Neolithic glacier mummy from the Alps, PNAS October 1 vol 99 no 99 (2002)
The Iceman did not come from abroad, he was born and lived in what is now South Tyrol
Publication: W. Müller, H. Fricke, A.N. Halliday, M.T. McCulloch, J.-A. Wartho, Origin and Migration of the Alpine Iceman, Science 302, 31 Oct. 2003, 862-866
A cut in his hand shows a battle before the Iceman died
Publication: A. Nerlich, B. Bachmeier, A. Zink, S. Thalhammer, E. Egarter Vigl, Ötzi had a wound on his right hand, The Lancet 362, July 26, 2003
The Iceman belongs to the European genetic haplogroup K and was probably infertile
Publication: F.U. Rollo/L. Ermini/S. Luciani/, I. Marota, C. Olivieri, D. Luiselli, Fine characterization of the Iceman’s mtDNA Haplogroup. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 130 (2006) 557-564
The Iceman’s constitution was athletic, he was more a wanderer than a manual worker
Publication: C.B. Ruff, B.M. Holt, V. Sladek, M. Berner, W.A. Murphy jr, D. zur Nedden, H. Seidler, W. Recheis, Body size, body proportions and mobility in the Tyrolean “Iceman”, Journal of Human Evolution 51-1 (2006) 91-101
The Iceman bled to death. The arrow tip in his left shoulder pierced the subclavian artery
Publication: P. Pernter, P. Gostner, E. Egarter Vigl, F. R. Rühli, Radiologic Proof for the Iceman's cause of death (ca. 5300 BP), Journal of Archaeological Science (2007), 1-3
The last 33 hours in the Iceman’s life by the pollen found in his intestine
Publication: Oeggl, K., Kofler, W., Schmidl, A., Dickson, J.H., Egarter-Vigl, E., Gaber, O., The reconstruction of the last itinerary of "Ötzi", the Neolithic Iceman, by pollen analyses from sequentially sampled gut extracts. In: Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007) 853-861;
New radiological photos show brain trauma and prompt new theories about his death
Publication: Lippert, A., Gostner, P., Egarter Vigl, E., Pernter, P., Vom Leben und Sterben des Ötztaler Gletschermannes. Germania 85-1 (2007) 1-21;
brain trauma and head injuries: new theories about the Iceman’s death
(Dr. Paul Gostner, Head of Radiology, Regional Hospital of Bolzano/Italy) Pernter, P. / Gostner, P. / Egarter-Vigl, E. / Rühli, F. J.: Radiologic proof for the Iceman`s cause of death (ca. 5300 BP). In: Journal of Archeological Science, 34 (2007) 1784 – 1786 (doi:10.1016/j.jas.2006.12.019);
the Iceman died in early summer
(Prof. Dr. Klaus Oeggl, Institut für Botanik, Universität Innsbruck/Austria) Oeggl, K.: The significance of the Tyrolean Iceman for the Archaeobotany of Central Europe. In: Veget Hist Archaeobot (2009) 18:1-11
researchers identify blood cells and sequence the DNA of the Iceman. Iceman’s stomach content is analyzed. The Iceman had dental pathologies. The Iceman was involved in seasonal transhumance.
(Albert Zink (DNA), Marek Janko (blood), Frank Maixner (stomach), EURAC-Institute for mummies and the Iceman, laboratory for ancient DNA); Roger Seiler (teeth), Centre for Evolutionary Medicine (ZEM) Zurich; Wolfgang Müller (transhumance), Royal Holloway University of London. All studies have been presented at the EURAC Iceman Congress in october, 20-22 2011 in Bolzano and are to be published in scientific journals or in the “Yearbook of mummy studies” in september 2012 (jan. 2013: not yet published).
The Iceman’s genome (nuclear DNA) is deciphered.
First results: The Iceman had brown eyes, blood group O and belongs to the y-chromosomal Haplogroup G2a4, which is rare in modern Europe. The Iceman was lactose intolerant. Maladies: The Iceman was predisposed to cardiovascular disease and is the first recorded case of a human infected with the Lyme disease pathogen.
Keller, A. / Graefen, A. / Ball, M. / Matzas, M. / Boisguerin, V. / Maixner, F. / Leidinger, P. / Backes, C. / Khairat, R. / Forster, M. / Stade, B. / Franke, A. / Mayer, J. / Spangler, J. / McLaughlin, S. / Shah, M. / Lee, C. / Harkins, T.T. / Sartori, A. / Moreno-Estrada, A. / Henn, B. / Sikora, M. / Semino, O. / Chiaroni, J. / Rootsi, S. / Myres, N.M. / Cabrera, V.M. / Underhill, P.A. / Bustamante, C.D. / Egarter Vigl, E. / Samadelli, M. / Cipollini, G. / Haas, J. / Katus, H. / O’Connor, B.D. / Carlson, M.R.J. / Meder, B. / Blin, N. / Meese, E. / Pusch, C.M. / Zink, A.: New insights into the Tyrolean Iceman's origin and phenotype as inferred by whole-genome sequencing. In: Nature Communications 3:698 doi: 10.1038/ncomms1701 (2012)